The discount brokerage industry, with incumbents such as Fidelity and ETrades, has been under-serving a growing population of retail investors.
Consider the financial services firm that handles your 401k. It is designed around the notion of passive investment in the long horizon. By investing in a market-tracking index fund, they claim, one can significantly grow their retirement savings because the US stock market will always trend up in the long run. What if you want to actively invest in the stock market? You will need to figure out the complications of converting your passive investment into an IRA, from there on all the future trades you make will be executed by your brokerage firm on a commission basis.
Let’s zoom out a bit and look carefully at the whole picture. The traditional discount brokerage firm uses commission fees and account transfer fees to “hook” individual investors onto the platform through what Richard Thaler calls “the sunk cost fallacy.” The brokerage firm rarely provides high-quality investment advisory services to the customers. As customers make more and more indecisive and ill-informed trades, they feel compelled to rectify their investment blunders with follow-up remedial trades, surrendering more commission fees to the brokerage firm.
Then came Robinhood, a commission-free, mobile-only tech firm based in Palo Alto at the heart of the Silicon Valley. The founders of Robinhood are former financial industry professionals, and they observed that the actual electronic execution of a regular buy/sell action costs nearly zero per trade to the brokerage firm. Then comes the insights: traditional brokerage firms are charging commission fee only because (1) their competitors are doing the same and (2) they need to use the commission-based revenue to cover the overhead cost of business operations. Instead of following suit, Robinhood adopts a radically new business model: fulfilling stock trades with zero commission fees while making money from the interest rate of customer deposits (i.e., “the float”) as well as from a subscription-based premium service where customers can execute trades with leverage. In lieu of the paper-based (or at most desktop-based) user experience offered by industry incumbents, Robinhood offers an intuitive, delightful mobile user experience where users can access realtime market information and execute trades through simple tapping and swiping gestures. Their referral program (“refer Robinhood to a friend and get a free share of a random stock”) further added elements of virality and gamification to the user journey.
As of 2017, Robinhood became a “unicorn” (i.e., a high-growth company with $1 billion or higher post-money valuation) with millions of engaged retail investors onboard (or, rather, “jumped ship” from industry incumbent to Robinhood) and a healthy profit margin. In early 2018, Robinhood announces trading support for crypto-currencies. An early-stage digital winner in the space of financial brokerage industry seems to have emerged.